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Gernreich, Rudi ... Gettysburg Address
Gernreich, Rudi
Austrian-born American avant-garde fashion designer of the 1960s.
Gernsback, Hugo
American inventor and publisher who was largely responsible for the establishment of science fiction as an independent literary form.
Gerome, Jean-Leon
painter, sculptor, and teacher, one of the most prominent late 19th-century academic artists in France.
Geronimo
Bedonkohe Apache leader of the Chiricahua Apache, who led his people's defense of their homeland against the military might of the United States.
gerontology and geriatrics
scientific and medical disciplines, respectively, that are concerned with all aspects of health and disease in the elderly, and with the normal aging process. Gerontology is the scientific study of the phenomena of aging, by which is meant the progressive changes that take place in a cell, a tissue, an ...
Gerould, Katharine Elizabeth Fullerton
American writer, noted for short stories that reveal her elevated sensibilities and fine craftsmanship.
gerousia
in ancient Sparta, council of elders, one of the two chief organs of the Spartan state, the other being the apella (assembly). The functions of both were likely delineated at the time of the reforms of Lycurgus, probably in the 7th century BC. The gerousia prepared business to be submitted ...
Gerrard, Steven
English professional football (soccer) player who was considered one of the most complete footballers in the world in the early 2000s.
Gerry, Elbridge
signer of the American Declaration of Independence and fifth vice president of the United States (1813-14) in the second term of Pres. James Madison. From his name the term gerrymander later was derived.
gerrymandering
in U.S. politics, drawing the boundaries of electoral districts in a way that gives one party an unfair advantage over its rivals. The term is derived from the name of Governor Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts, whose administration enacted a law in 1812 defining new state senatorial districts. The law consolidated ...
Gershom ben Judah
eminent rabbinical scholar who proposed a far-reaching series of legal enactments (taqqanot) that profoundly molded the social institutions of medieval European Jewry.
Gershwin, George
one of the most significant and popular American composers of all time. He wrote primarily for the Broadway musical theatre, but important as well are his orchestral and piano compositions in which he blended, in varying degrees, the techniques and forms of classical music with the stylistic nuances and techniques ...
Gershwin, Ira
American lyricist who collaborated with his younger brother, George Gershwin, on more than 20 Broadway musicals and motion pictures until George's death (1937) and who later collaborated on films and plays with others-Moss Hart, Kurt Weill, Jerome Kern, Harry Warren, and Harold Arlen-and contributed to Gershwin revivals.
Gerson, Jean de
theologian and Christian mystic, leader of the conciliar movement for church reform that ended the Great Schism (between the popes of Rome and Avignon).
Gerstenberg, Heinrich Wilhelm von
German poet, critic, and theorist of the Sturm und Drang ("Storm and Stress") literary movement, whose Briefe uber die Merkwurdigkeiten der Literatur (1766-67; "Letters About the Peculiarities of Literature") contained the first definite formulation of the critical principles of this movement: its enthusiasm for Shakespeare, its preoccupation with youthful genius, ...
Gerstner, Lou
American businessman best known for the pivotal role he played in revitalizing the ailing International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) in the mid-1990s.
Gertrude
queen of Denmark and mother of Hamlet, who is married to her first husband's murderer in Shakespeare's tragedy Hamlet.
Gerusalemme liberata
heroic epic poem in ottava rima, the masterpiece of Torquato Tasso. He completed it in 1575 and then spent several years revising it. While he was incarcerated in the asylum of Santa Anna, part of the poem was published without his knowledge as Il Goffredo; he published the complete epic ...
Gervais, Paul
paleontologist and zoologist who succeeded Georges Cuvier and Henri de Blainville as principal French contributor to vertebrate paleontology.
Gervais, Ricky
English comedian, perhaps best known for his work on the television series The Office (2001-03).
Gervase Of Canterbury
monk at Christ Church, Canterbury, from 1163, compiler of chronicles having considerable value for the reign of Richard I (1189-99) and the first decade of King John's reign (from 1199).
Gerzean culture
predynastic Egyptian cultural phase given the sequence dates 40-65 by Sir Flinders Petrie and later dated c. 3400-c. 3100 BCE. Evidence indicates that the Gerzean culture was a further development of the culture of the Amratian period, which immediately preceded the Gerzean. Centred primarily at Naqadah and Hierakonpolis in Upper ...
Gesell, Arnold
American psychologist and pediatrician, who pioneered the use of motion-picture cameras to study the physical and mental development of normal infants and children and whose books influenced child rearing in the United States. As director of the Clinic of Child Development at Yale University (1911-48), he collected and published a ...
Gesenius, Wilhelm
German biblical critic and an important figure in Hebrew and other Semitic language studies. He was a pioneer of critical Hebrew lexicography and grammar.
Geshov, Ivan Evstatiev
Bulgarian statesman and founder of the Bulgarian National Bank. He was prime minister from March 1911 to July 1913.
Gesner, Conrad
Swiss physician and naturalist, best known for his systematic compilations of information on animals and plants.
Gesneriaceae
one of 23 families in the flowering plant order Lamiales, consisting of 147 genera and about 3,200 species of mostly tropical and subtropical herbaceous or slightly woody plants. Many are of economic importance as horticultural ornamentals. Among these are the African violets (Saintpaulia) and gloxinias (Sinningia speciosa).
Gessi, Romolo
Italian soldier and explorer who served in the Egyptian Sudan under Gen. Charles George Gordon (governor general of the Sudan) and participated in the final stages of the exploration of the Nile River. By becoming the first person to circumnavigate and map Lake Albert Nyanza (in Uganda), one of the ...
Gessler, Otto
German minister of war during the Weimar Republic who was instrumental in rebuilding the country's armed forces after World War I.
Gessner, Salomon
Swiss writer, translator, painter, and etcher, known throughout Europe for literary works of pastoral themes and rococo style.
gesso
fluid white coating, composed of plaster of paris, chalk, gypsum, or other whiting mixed with glue, applied to smooth surfaces such as wood panels, plaster, stone, or canvas to provide the ground for tempera and oil painting or for gilding and painting carved furniture and picture frames. In medieval and ...
gest
a story of achievements or adventures. Among several famous medieval collections of gests are Fulcher of Chartres's Gesta Francorum, Saxo Grammaticus's Gesta Danorum, and the compilation known as the Gesta Romanorum. The term was also used to refer to a romance in verse.
Gesta Romanorum
Latin collection of anecdotes and tales, probably compiled early in the 14th century. It was one of the most popular books of the time and the source, directly or indirectly, of much later literature, including that of Chaucer, John Gower, Thomas Hoccleve, Shakespeare, and many others. Of its authorship nothing ...
Gestalt psychology
school of psychology founded in the 20th century that provided the foundation for the modern study of perception. Gestalt theory emphasizes that the whole of anything is greater than its parts. That is, the attributes of the whole are not deducible from analysis of the parts in isolation. The word ...
Gestalt therapy
a humanistic method of psychotherapy that takes a holistic approach to human experience by stressing individual responsibility and awareness of present psychological and physical needs.
Gestapo
the political police of Nazi Germany. The Gestapo ruthlessly eliminated opposition to the Nazis within Germany and its occupied territories and was responsible for the roundup of Jews throughout Europe for deportation to extermination camps.
gestation
in mammals, the time between conception and birth, during which the embryo or fetus is developing in the uterus. This definition raises occasional difficulties because in some species (e.g., monkeys and man) the exact time of conception may not be known. In these cases the beginning of gestation is usually ...
gestational diabetes mellitus
temporary condition in which blood sugar (glucose) levels increase during pregnancy and return to normal after delivery. A healthy pregnancy is characterized by increased nutrient utilization, increased insulin resistance, and increased insulin secretion. Blood glucose concentrations tend to be lower in pregnant women than in nonpregnant women because the mother ...
Geste, Beau
fictional character, the English protagonist of the novel Beau Geste (1924) by Percival C. Wren. The work is probably best known through its three film adaptations and a BBC television miniseries.
Gesu
mother church in Rome of the Jesuit order, designed by Giacomo da Vignola in 1568. The facade, which was the work of Giacomo della Porta, was added in 1575.
Gesualdo, Carlo, principe di (prince of) Venosa, conte di (count of) Conza
Italian composer and lutenist. Until the late 20th century his fame rested chiefly on his dramatic, unhappy, and often bizarre life. Since the late 20th century, however, his reputation as a musician has grown, based on his highly individual and richly chromatic madrigals. He is especially noted for what music ...
get
Jewish document of divorce written in Aramaic according to a prescribed formula. Orthodox and Conservative Jews recognize it as the only valid instrument for severing a marriage bond. Rabbinic courts outside Israel, recognizing the need to comply with civil laws regulating divorce and settlements, require a civil divorce before a ...
Geta, Publius Septimius
Roman emperor from 209 to 211, jointly with his father, Septimius Severus (reigned 193-211), and his brother, Caracalla (reigned 198-217). The younger son of Septimius Severus and Julia Domna, he was given the title caesar on Jan. 28, 198, when his elder brother Caracalla became joint emperor (as augustus) with ...
Getae
an ancient people of Thracian origin, inhabiting the banks of the lower Danube region and nearby plains. First appearing in the 6th century BC, the Getae were subjected to Scythian influence and were known as expert mounted archers and devotees of the deity Zalmoxis. Although the daughter of their king ...
Getafe
city, south-central Madrid provincia (province) and comunidad autonoma (autonomous community), central Spain. Notable buildings include a large Piarist seminary and the 16th-century Church of Santa Maria Magdalena, built in the austere style of Juan de Herrera. In the vicinity, the Hill of Los Angeles, with its Sacred Heart monument (1924), ...
Gethsemane
garden across the Kidron Valley on the Mount of Olives (Hebrew Har ha-Zetim), a mile-long ridge paralleling the eastern part of Jerusalem, where Jesus is said to have prayed on the night of his arrest before his Crucifixion. The name Gethsemane (Hebrew gat shemanim, "oil press") suggests that the garden ...
Getty Museum, J. Paul
museum and research centre established by J. Paul Getty to house his large collection of artworks. The original museum occupied a wing added to his ranch house in Malibu, Calif., U.S. His collections soon outgrew that location, and in 1974 they were moved to a new building in Malibu, a ...
Getty Trust
private operating foundation that was founded by the American oil billionaire J. Paul Getty in 1953 for the purpose of establishing the J. Paul Getty Museum, which opened to the public in 1954. The Getty Trust has become a multibillion-dollar philanthropic foundation dedicated to enlarging and exhibiting its deceased founder's ...
Getty, J. Paul
American oil billionaire reputed to be the richest man in the world at the time of his death. He owned a controlling interest in the Getty Oil Company and in nearly 200 other concerns.
Gettysburg
borough (town), Adams county, southern Pennsylvania, U.S., 38 miles (61 km) southwest of Harrisburg, just north of the Maryland border. Laid out in the 1780s by James Gettys and called Gettys-town, it was renamed in 1800 when it became the county seat and was incorporated in 1806. Lutheran Theological Seminary ...
Gettysburg Address
world-famous speech delivered by President Abraham Lincoln at the dedication (Nov. 19, 1863) of the National Cemetery at Gettysburg, Pa., the site of one of the decisive battles of the American Civil War (July 1-3, 1863).